A cognition-based approach toward a general theory of map signs
A carto-semiotic method for designing more eﬀective map symbols is being proposed. Afer a brief review of major methods of communication, the cognitive processes of seeing, identifying, defning, naming, grouping, ranking and storing information are discussed. Afer pointing out real-world structures, concepts of superordinate-, basicand subordinate categories and taxonomies are introduced. Following the proposed algorithm of semiotic transformation, the basic category’s semantic component of symbol information emphasizes the referent’s prototypical or defning properties. According to syntactics, the relational structure of all symbols belonging to the same category corresponds to perceived real-world structures, and as pragmatic component a symbol design’s visual forms aim to match the average user’s mental constructs to achieve the intended mental response.